This page contains the online materials (OLMs) complementing our book.

It is updated frequently, please come back later if you do not find yet

the OLM you are interested in.

You may also send us a message and we shall inform you.

The OLMs are freely downloadable, but please read the terms of use at the bottom of the page.


Part I



Introduction: Darwinian ecology


OLM1.1   Deductive and inductive approaches to ecology

OLM1.2   The water- clock


Part II

Exponential population growth


Exponential growth of unstructured populations


No OLM is planned.


Ecological tolerance and the distribution of species


OLM5.1   Estimation of the multivariate response function

OLM5.2   Correlative distribution models


Part III 

Regulation of population growth


Competitive exclusion


OLM7.1  The equilibrium resource density in case of fluctuating growth rates

OLM7.2  Impact of alien species through shared parasites


Trade- offs and adaptations


OLM8.1  Growth-defence trade- off and its role in biological invasions

OLM8.2  Fitness in age- structured populations

OLM8.3  Relationship of protoplasm/ cell wall ratio and photosynthetic capacity

OLM8.4  Calculation of the optimal clutch size in the great tit population of Wytham Woods

OLM8.5  Density- dependent optimization: partial selection pressures for higher reproductive effort

OLM8.6  Division of labour in clonal plants


Robust coexistence and population regulation


OLM9.1  K or r0?

OLM9.2  Coexistence of two E. coli strains on a mixture of two resources

OLM9.3  Tilman model: full analysis

OLM9.4  Regulation of plant populations by self- thinning

OLM9.5  The dynamical role of spatial constraints in competitive interactions

OLM9.6  The complex dynamics of Tribolium castaneum

OLM9.7  The chemostat model of the Chlorella– Rotifera system

OLM9.8  Simulated dynamics of simple food webs, based on Wollrab et al. 2012

OLM9.9  Application of the energy pathway method to modules of complex food webs


Population regulation and the ecological niche


OLM 10.1  Discrete and continuous niche: the formal problem

OLM 10.2  The requirement/ impact niche concept of Leibold: similarities and differences

OLM 10.3  The Maculinea story

OLM 10.4  Historical reflections on the development of the niche concept

OLM 10.5  Niche segregations

OLM 10.6  An example for the calculation of niche overlap

OLM 10.7  Coexistence in fluctuating environments: relative nonlinearity and storage effect


Part IV 

Finiteness and diversity


Stochasticity due to finiteness


OLM11.1  Predicting the variance increase due to drift

OLM11.2  Calculation of effective population size in fluctuating populations

OLM11.3  Genetic drift and inbreeding

OLM11.4  Spatial differentiation of populations and migration

OLM11.5  Species– abundance distribution under neutral dynamics

OLM11.6  Bestiary of species– abundance distributions


Diversity patterns and population regulation

OLM12.1 Comparison of species numbers in samples 

OLM12.2  Relationship between species- and community- level variation of biomass

OLM12.3  Hysteresis in high productivity lakes

OLM12.4  Kelp forests and urchin barrens as alternative stable states